3分快3

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人工智能构建“智慧法院”的问题研究

人机结合系统的探索

  发布时间: 2017-10-24 15:41:46


zhaiyao:

dangqianquanguogedifayuanzhengzaijijiluoshi“zhihuifayuan”de3fenkuai3gongcheng,yequdelebushaolingrenxinxidechengguo,dan3fenkuai3duirengongzhinengderenshihaifeichangchubu。shenpanshiwujuyouhenqiangdeguilvxinghecaozuoxing,jinguanrengongzhinengkeyihuanjiefayuanmianlindeanduorenshaodejumian,danfazhixiandaihuabijingbuzaiyufazhijishudexiandaihua,ershizuizhongguijieyurendexiandaihuaherendelixingfazhan。rengongzhinengyunyongdaoshenpanshijianzhonghuichuxianzheiyanghuoneiyangdewenti,bizherenweimuqianqingkuangxia,shenzhihenzhangyiduanshijiannei,rengongzhinengzhinengbanyanshenpangongzuodefuzhujiaose。jiusifahuodongeryan,tigaoxiaolvwuyishizhongyaode,danshigengweizhongyaodezhongjimubiaoshishixiansifagongzheng。bizhetongguoduirengongzhinengzai3fenkuai3shenpanzhongchanshengdefuxiaozuoyongjinxingfenxi,tansuorenjijiehemoshidekenengxing,yixiandaikejiweiyinling,puxiexinxihuashidai“zhihuifayuan”xinpianzhang。

3分快3guanjianci: rengongzhineng  3fenkuai3shenpan  renjijiehe

yixiazhengwen:

2016nian7yuedi,zhonggongzhongyangbangongting、guowuyuanbangongtingyinfa《guojiaxinxihuafazhanzhanlvegangyao》,jiang3fenkuai3“zhihuifayuan”lieruguojiaxinxihuafazhanzhanlve,chongfentixianledangzhongyangduirenminfayuanxinxihua3fenkuai3dezhongshi、guanxinhezhichi。2017nian,zhihuifayuan3fenkuai3chujuguimo,zaiquanyewuwangluobanli、quanliuchengsifagongkai、quanfangweizhineng3fenkuai3sangefangmianqudexianzhuchengji。quanguo3520gefayuan、9239gerenminfatinghe38gehaishipaichufatingtongguofayuanzhuanwangshixianhulianhutong、yewuzhichi、weimin3fenkuai3、shujuhuiju、anquanjianguandequanfugai。[ 《fazhilanpishu·zhongguofayuanxinxihuafazhanbaogaono.1(2017)》。

]

yi、rengongzhinengyufalvdeguanxi

falvduonianlaiyizhixianyu“jiyixue”he“shehuikexue”zhizheng,jinguanfadekexuexingdezhenglunzaoyichenailuoding,chengweibuzhengdeshishi,ranerfalvrengcunzaimohuxing、zhihouxingwenti。congbiaomianshangkan,falvbushiyigerenyizhizhuanyidekeguancunzai,shishishang,falvshirenmenxiguanhexinyangdechanwu,shiquanhenggezhongliyidejieguo。rengongzhinengzuoweijisuanjikexuejishudeyanjiufenzhi,mofangdeshirenleiderenzhiguocheng——guancha、xuexi、zuzhiyuyan、chulishuju、dechujielun,ji“xiangrenleiyiyangsikao”,zi1956niandanshengyilai,qiyanjiuchengguoyiguangfanshentoudaojingjixue、xinlixue、shehuixuedengzhuduoshehuixuekezhizhong。shishishang,falvmouzhongchengdushangqiaqiayurengongzhinengdejichuxuqiubumouerhe。danrengongzhinengshejishiyongzhinengsuanfalaimonirenleisiwei,falvguanzhuyuluojihejingyan,lifahesifayuyandemohuxing、sifaziyoucailiangquandequedingbiaozhun,doushisifajieguochongmanbuquedingxing,rengongzhinengnenggoumofangrenleisiweijinxingxiangguanpanduanma?rengongzhinengzaizhihuifayuan3fenkuai3zhongkeyimanzushenmexuqiu?

3分快3(yi)、xiaolvxuqiu。susonganlidedaliangjilei,falvtiaowendefenfanfuza,duiyuzhuyaoyikaojingyanheduifalvtiaokuandeshuxichengdudefaguanlaishuo,poqiexuyaorengongzhinenglaitigaobanshiguifanhuahegongzuoxiaolv。rengongzhinengqiangdadejiyihejiansuogongneng,keyimibuyixierenleizhinengdejuxianxing,bangzhufaguancongshixiangduijiandandefalvjiansuogongzuo,congerjidadijiefanglefaguandenaolilaodong,shiqizhuanzhuyugengfuzadefalvtuilihuodong。guoqufaguangenjuzijiduishishihefalvwentidelijiejiukeyizuochupanduan,danxianzaikeyijiezhurengongzhineng,duileisianjiandepanjuejinxingjiansuo、biduihetuiyan,jinerqianghuazijideneixinqueren。congsifagongzuorenyuandejiaodulaikan,wulunshixinxijiansuo、juanzongchulihaishianjianyupan,rengongzhinengdejieruwuyijiangjieyuedaliangderenliziyuan,bimianzhongfulaodong,jianshengsifachengben。

(er)、gongpingxuqiu。falvyuyanbujingque、butongfaguanduifalvjingshenhefalvguidingdelijiebuyizhi、shougerenchengzhangjinglihexinlisuzhideyingxiang,shidesifacailiangquefatongyixing。wangwangfaguandecaipanjieguochayijiaoda,yishiputonglaobaixingshoudaobugongzhengdedaiyu。conganjiandangshirendejiaodulaikan,liyonghulianwanghedashujujishu,rengongzhinengkeyianquandizuodaoleisianjianxiangsichuli,nengcujintongantongpanhesifagongzheng,bujinmanzulerenmenduimouyianjianshishinenggouhuodexiangduiwendingpanjuejielundeqidai,yenenggoujiandufaguanbingchigongzheng、tongantongpan,jiejuelerenmenduifaguanzuochugongzhengcaipandehaoqiyuhuaiyi,congjishushangrangrenmenzaimeiyigesifaanjianzhongganshoudaogongpingzhengyi。

3分快3(san)、bianminxuqiu。zhejiangfayuanxitongliyongdashujupingtai,budankeyitupokongjianxianzhishixiandianzishangwujiufencongqisudaojuzheng、tingshen、panjue、zhixingquanliuchengzaixianjiejue,hainengtongguoshujufenxijingquesuodingbeigaochangyongdeshouhuodianhuahedizhi,bangzhusifawenshushunlisongda。[《gaoyuanqianshouali,“zhihuifayuan”chongmanmeili》。《zhejiangfazhibao》2015nian11yue25ridi001 ban。]congsifahuodongshehuixiaoguolaikan,rengongzhinengdecanyuyouwangbangzhushuangfangdangshirenxiangduizhunquediyucepanjuejieguo,bingchanshengduifalvdequedingxingyuqi,congeryindaorenmenlixingchuliliyijiufen,bimianzhengsong,dazhiwusongshehuidelixiangjingjie。

3分快3er、rengongzhinengyinrushenpanliuchengkenengyinfadefuxiaozuoyong

(yi)、daodelunlifengxian。ruguoshuoyizhongshiwuyongyoudaodediwei,renleijiuyinggaiduizhijuyouxiangyingdedaodeyiwu。ruguo3fenkuai3foudingzhinengjiqidedaodediwei,3fenkuai3jiukeyiyirenhe3fenkuai3zijixihuandefangshilaiduidaitamen,buguanshirencidehaishicankude。ruojianglaiyouyitianzheixiejiqirenyongyoutongyangderenquan,neime3fenkuai3duizheixieyouqinggandejiqirenrenyidizhishi、zhaohuanhuomanmaouda,jiushijueduibunengbeidaodesuojieshoude。daodedegainianzhudingle3fenkuai3bunengsuixinsuoyudiduidaijuyoudaodediweiderenhuojiqi。lingyifangmian,zaisifashijianzhong,faguanshenlianjianxuyaoyinrulunliqingganyinsu,suoyiruguoyaoqiurengongzhinenglaipanan,jiqidelunlibiaozhunruhezhiding?

3分快3(er)、jiqibuyizhangwotuilinengli。falvxuyaotuilihejieshi,suiransifatuilijuyouxiangduitongyidebiaozhun,danfaguanshijuyouzhuguannengdongxingdegeti,yincizaitongyibiaozhundeshishishanghuichanshengyixiechayidejieguo。sifajieshijuyoubianzhengxing、jiangouxinghechuangzaoxingdetezheng,gengjinyibujiajulezheizhongchayi。duiyurengongzhinenglaishuo,zhenzhengkunnandegongzuokenengzaiyudaliangxianshizhongdefalvwentibingbucunzaibiaozhundaan,duiyufalvwentidejiedaxuyaozailiyi、renqing、jihuidenggefangmiandequanheng,xuyaojuyouzhenzhenglijiexianshishehuidenengli,zheiduijingyanfengfudefaguanlaishuodouweibishijiandandegongzuo。rengongzhinengfalvxitongkeyiweisifashenpantigongxiangduitongyidetuilibiaozhunhepingjiabiaozhun,bangzhufaguanhuodejuyouyiguanxingdepanjue,danjinxianyubuxutuilidejiandananjian。

(san)、wufafahuifaguandeziyoucailiangquan。yijisuanjiliangxingweili: jisuanjiliangxingdebiduanzaiyutadejixiexingyouyuershiyingxingbuzu,bunengshiyingfuzaduobiandeshehuishenghuo,bufuheanjiancaipandekeguanguilv。yanjiujisuanjiliangxingdechuzhongshitongguoxihuagezhongliangxingqingjieyixianzhifaguandeziyoucailiangquancongershixianliangxinggongzhengdeyitu,danxianshishenghuodeqianzibaitaihejutianjiandexingxingseseyouxuyaofuyufaguanziyoucailiangquan。liangxingshigenjuxingfaguiding,zairendingfanzuidejichushang,duifanzuirenshifoupanchuxingfa,panchuhezhongxingfayijipanchuduozhongxingfadequedingyucailiang。zhiyoufaguancaishizheiyishenpanhuodongdezhuti,faguanzhiyougenjuzhiyelixing,jiangjutianjianyufalvguidinglianxiqilai,cainengzuochushidangdepanjue。jisuanjiliangxingshijianlizaiduifaguanbuxinrendejichushang,tabujinxianzhilefaguandezhuguannengdongxing,tongshiyeboduolefaguandelixingheyizhi。

(si)、bunengzuochuxiangyingdejiazhipanduan。falvbaohanrendejiazhipanduan,cileijiazhipanduanshijianchaguan、faguangerenjiyuduizhenggeshehuidezhengzhi、jingji、wenhuahefalvdelijie,zheixiecanshushiwufabeirengongzhinenglianghuade。piruhunyinanzhongzuijibende“ganqingpolie”jiubaohanlexianjinrengongzhinenggenbenbunenglijiedefuzaxing。yinci“duiyuxuyaojiazhipanduandejutishiyi,buyingdangjiaojirengongzhineng”。faguanshishenghuozaixianshishehuizhongderen,tamencongshidefalvhuodongbukenengpaichushehuijingyanhesiweijiegoudeyingxiang。zaishijideshenpanshijianzhong,faguanbingbushijixiedizunxunguize,tebieshimianduifuzaanjianshi,wangwangxuyaozuochumouzhongjiazhixuanze。huomusifaguanmingquetichu“falvdeshengmingbingbuzaiyuluojierzaiyujingyan”[(mei)bodenghaimozhu: 《falixue——fazhexuejiqifangfa》,dengzhenglai、jijingwuyi,huaxiachubanshe1987nian12yueban,di478ye。]degeyan,zheilisuoweideluoji,jiushizhifalvxingshizhuyidesanduanlunyanyiluoji;suoweidejingyan,zebaokuoyidingdedaode、zhengzhililunhegonggongzhengce,shenzhihaibaokuofaguandepianjian。

(wu)、ershenhezaishenzhidukenengshiquyiyi。weidadesixiangjiamakesi·weibobainianqiancengyuyan:“xiandaidefaguanshizidongshouhuoji,toujinqudeshisuzhuanghesusongfei,tuchulaideshipanjuehecongfadianshangchaoxiadeliyou”。“falvtuiliyinggaiyijukeguanshishi、mingquedeguizeyijiluojiqujiejueyiqieweifalvsuoyaoqiudejutixingwei。jiarufalvnengruciyunzuo,neimewulunsheizuocaijue,falvtuilidouhuidaoxiangtongyangdecaijue。”[ (mei)shidiwen·j·bodunzhu: 《falvhefalvtuilidaolun》,zhangzhiming、jiexingquanyi,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe1998nian9yueban,di3ye。]huanyanzhi,jisuanjizhiyaozunshoufalvtuilideluoji,yehuidechuhefaguanyiyangdepanjuejieguo。zaifenxifaxuejiakanlai,“suowei‘fazhi’jiushiyaoqiujielunbixushidaqiantiyuxiaoqiantiluojibiranjieguo。”[zhujingwenzhubian: 《duixifangfalvchuantongdetiaozhan》,zhongguojianchachubanshe1996nian2yueban,di292ye。]ruguofaguanweifansanduanluntuilideluoji,jiudengyupohuaifazhi。youcikeyishixiangyixia,rengongzhinengdechengxuyidanguding,quanguodefayuanshiyongtongyitaoxitong,xitongzhongshedingdeshujuhesuanfajunyizhi,neimeduitongyianjiandeshishirending、falvshiyong、panjuejieguoyeyidingshixiangtongde。zheiyang,ershenchengxuhezaishenchengxujiangshiquyiyi,chufeiyouxinzhengjudechuxian,fouzebuguanjingguojicishenli,anjiandejieguodoushiyiyangde。

(liu)、sifagongkaiyubaomiyiwujiandejiexianxuyaohuaqing。henduofalvleiderengongzhinengdoushiyoudisanfangtigongde,erfeigongjianfahuozhelvsuozijiyanfa,tongchangyi3fenkuai3dexingshigoumaiguolai。jiyujisuanjidexuexigongneng,yangbenheshujuyueduoyueda,rengongzhinengfenxidezhiliangjiuyuegao,erqiejishuhaihuibuduantigaoheyouhua。rengongzhinengjishutigongzhekenengjianggegekehudeshujuhuizongdaoyigeshujukuxitongzhong。yinci,congbaohushenpanmimiyiwudejiaoduchufa,shiyongzhebixukaolv: shenmeshujukeyitigong,yijiruhebaohu、cunchuzheixieshuju。

san、ruhejiejuefuxiaozuoyong

3分快3(yi)、jiqizhinengzuoweifuzhu,rencaishipanandeguanjian

3分快3nanjingshizhongjirenminfayuanyu2017nian1yue2rifabushengmingcheng,jinnianlai,3fenkuai3yuanyizhichixujiaqiangxinxihua3fenkuai3,chongfenfahuixinxihua3fenkuai33fenkuai3renminqunzhong、3fenkuai3shenpanzhixing、3fenkuai3sifaguanlidezhongyaozuoyong,danshi3fenkuai3yeshenkerenshidao,sifashijuyoujingyanhejiazhipanduanxingzhidegongzuo,zaicongmingdejiqihuoruanjiandoubunengwanquantidaifaguandegongzuo,zhinengweifaguantigongbananzhichiyufuzhu。[zhongguoxinwenwang http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2017/01-02/8111563.shtml 。]

suizhejisuanjijishuzaifayuanxitongzhongdeguangfanyingyong,3fenkuai3jileilehailiangdeanjianshenlishuju。mianduizheixiehailiangshuju,ruhekuaisugaoxiaodiwajuehefenxizheixieshujubeihoudejiazhishi“zhihuifayuan”3fenkuai3dezhongyaorenwuzhiyi。tongguoxiangguanfenxixitongfenxichudashujuzhijiandeguanlianxinxi,jineryuceweizhidebianhuaqushi,dequekeyibangzhu3fenkuai3gengyouxiao、genggaozhiliangdishenlianjian。raner,shujufenxishizhongxiangguanqingyinguode,shenlianjiangengduodixuyaozuochujingzhundeyinguopanduan。zaizhongguo,sifazhengceshichangzaibian,nanyouguilvkexun,shejizheruhejirengongzhinengquedingyitaogudingsuanfani?

3分快3bizhedejielunshi,sifashenpandezhutizhinengshiren,shigaosuzhidefaguan,jisuanjiyongyuanbunengqudairennao。yixingshishenpanweili,zhengqueliangxingdeqiantishidingzuizhunque。ruguodingzuibuzhun,liangxingjiushiquleyiyi。erzhunquedirendingshifougouchengfanzui,gouchenghezhongfanzui,shifouyingdangzhuijiuxingshizerendengxuyaofaguangenjuanjianbutongqingkuang,yunyongfalvsiweifangfazuochushidangdepanduan。ruofaguanmeiyoushouguozhuanmendefalvzhiyepeixun,meiyouzhangwofalvzhiyejineng,jiubunengzhengquepanduananjiandexingzhi,wulunjisuanjidegongnengduomewanshan,doubukenengbaozhengliangxingdegongzhengxing。renleixuanzefalvzuoweishehuikongzhiheshixianzhengyidegongju,tixianleduiwenminghejinbudebuxiezhuiqiu。danshi,“tufabunengzixing。”faguanzaizhixingfalvdeguochengzhong,fahuizhejuzuqingzhongdezuoyong。

3分快3(er)、renjixitongjiejuefangan

“rengongzhineng+fayuan ”detansuoyaojianchizhouqiangyuanzhangqiangdiaodeliangxiangyuanze: yishiyaofangbianrenminqunzhong ,bianminlimin,tongguoxinxihua3fenkuai3nuliweiqunzhongtigongbianjiegaoxiaodesusong3fenkuai3,zuidaxiandubaozhangrenminqunzhongdezhiqingquan、canyuquan、biaodaquan、jianduquan。ershiyao3fenkuai3faguan,zunzhongsifaguilv,congfenfanfuzadehailiangsifashujuzhongzhengquerenshihebawoshenpanguilv,tigaosifashuiping,fangfanyuanjiacuoan。jubeiledashujuyunsuanhoudefalvrengongzhinengzaijiejuefalvwentishizhishaoyoulianggejishuzhangaixuyaojiejue: yishijiqiduiziranyuyandelijiehechulinengli,ershifalvrenjileidejingyan、siweifangshiruhebeizhuanhuaweisuanfa。

renhejiqizaijiejuefalvwentishigeyousuozhang。rendeyoudianzaiyunenggoujinxingjiazhituili,shifalvwentidejiejueyushehuidebianhuafazhanxiangshiying,congerjuyoulinghuoxing。erjiqideyoudianshijuyouqiangdadejiyihejiansuogongneng,nengshifalvwentidejiejuejuyouyiguanxing。falvyaojiejuebujinjinshiliangdewenti,bujinyaokaolvanjiandeqingjieduifatiaodeshiyong,haiyaochaochufalvguifanbenshen,baokuodangshirendesuqiu,anjianzaiyidingfanweineideyingxiang,shenzhiyu3fenkuai3guojiateshudeguoqing。faguanchuantongduananmoshijuyougengduoderenqingweizailimian。fayuanshenlianjianbingbushifeiheijibai,falvhaicunzaihenduorengongzhinengbunengtihuidexiweijingmiaozhichu。

3分快33fenkuai3keyitansuoyitaolizuyurenyujiqigongnenghubuderenjixitong,wanshansifagaigeduirengongzhinengdegexiangyaoqiu,gaifangandeshishikeyifenweilianggejieduan: diyijieduanyirenweizhu,jiqiweirenshoujixinxibingzuochubufenxi,weirendejuecetigongcankao。dangfaguanjiechuyigexinanjian,huozheyigexinfaguanganggangjiechushenpangongzuo,takeyixiancankaoyixia“zhinengfaguan”depanjuejianyihuoshenpanyijian。fayuandejiandubumenyekeyigenjujiqifaguandepanjueyijian,duifaguandeshenpanhuodongjinxingjiandu,ruguoerzhedepanjuejieguochabietaida,keyiduifaguanpanjuedeliyoujinxingshencha。zheiyangkenengzaiyidingchengdushangzhiyuesifafubai。daodierjieduan,yuelaiyueduodejiandananjiandepanjuejielunhuiyujisuanjituilijieguoshixiangtongde,zheiyang,yixiejiandananjianjiukeyijisuanjiweizhujinxingshenpan。biru,meiguoxiaoefatingdeyixieanjianhe3fenkuai3guojicengfatingkeyongjianyichengxulaishenlideyixieanjian。zuowei“chanpinjianyanyuan”,faguankeyijianduhexiudingjiqidepanjuejieguo。zheiyang,dadatigaolefaguandegongzuoxiaolv,faguanduiwuyekejieci“xiaozhong”,youkenengdafudutigaofaguanxinshui,xiyingaosuzhifalvrencaijinrufaguanduiwu。

3分快3yirengongzhinengshouduancujinsifagaigeluoshigongzuo,muqianzhishiganggangqibu。weilaidejisuanjibuhuiwanquantidaifaguan,raner,faguanyuzhinengjiqitongyitidechuxianzekenengjuyouwuxianguangmingdeqianjing。[smith,j.c,machine intelligence and legal reasoning,chicago-kent lawreview,1998,vol.73,no.1,p277.]keyiyujian,rengongzhinengjiangweifalvgongzuodezidonghuatigongyuelaiyueqiangyoulidewainaozhichi。jiuxiangwangluodechuxiandapoleshaoshurenduijisuanjixinxidelongduanyiyang,rengongzhinengfalvxitongdewenshi,jiangdapofaguan、lvshidengshaoshurenduifalvzhishidelongduan,dadacujinfalvzhishidepuji,shifalvzhenzhengbianweirenminqunzhongshouzhongdeliqi。congxinxinfangmianshuo,“burongzhiyideshi,nenggouzhixingfuzajihuahefalvtuilidejisuanjixitongkendingshiweilaijishinianfalvshijiandeyichanggeming。”[garry s,grossman and lewis d.solomon,computers and legalreasoning,american bar association journal,v69 jan,1983.pp.66-70.]

sifagaigehaixubuduangonggushenhua,tebieshimianduijingjishehuikuaisufazhan、maodunjiufenxunsuzengzhangdexingshi,bixushenkebawo、zhudongshunyingdashuju、rengongzhinengshidaixinjiyu、xinqushi,cujintizhijizhigaigeyuxiandaikejishenduronghe,tuidongsifagongzuokuayueshifazhan。rengongzhinengzuoweifuzhulixingdekejishouduan,bingbunengdaitigongminzishendelixingpeiyu。fazhi3fenkuai3bunengduirengongzhinengqiwangguogao,youqishiduiyuyigezhengchuyushehuizhuanxingyuzhidugaigeqidefazhanzhongguojialaishuo,mianduigaigeyufazhidefuzaguanxi,3fenkuai3xuyaodeshiyipigengdongshehuidefaguan,erbushiyitaigengdongfalvdejiqi。

cankaowenxian:

1、《fazhilanpishu·zhongguofayuanxinxihuafazhanbaogaono.1(2017)》。

2、(mei)bodenghaimozhu: 《falixue——fazhexuejiqifangfa》,dengzhenglai、jijingwuyi,huaxiachubanshe1987nian12yueban。

3、(mei)shidiwen·j·bodunzhu: 《falvhefalvtuilidaolun》,zhangzhiming、jiexingquanyi,zhongguozhengfadaxuechubanshe1998nian9yueban。


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